At the end of the century, employers began to take a role in providing assistance for their employees. In 1875, American Express developed the first private employer-sponsored pension program. It wasn't available to all retirees, but was limited to those age 60 and over who were incapacitated and unable to work. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad inaugurated a pension in 1884 and its example was quickly followed by other railroads. The railroad pensions required no contribution from the employee, but were designed to tie the employee to the employer for life by limiting benefits to employees with very long tenure, as long as 30 years. Other employers created innovative programs, some even provided housing for employees or retirees.